science

Why do DNA testing?

Some 50 years ago, the study of man in the process of laboratory diagnostics was fiction for scientists. After all, hereditary information is hidden in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is located in the cells of our body. However, the decoding of such data seemed to be an infinitely complex, lengthy and insanely expensive process. To date, DNA analysis from a certain phantasmagoria and dreams of cyberpunk has moved into the field of ubiquitous research that is available to everyone.

Why do you need a DNA test?

Well, obviously, the results of the analysis allow us to identify with a high degree of accuracy the relationship of a person and his predisposition, for example, to diseases. If you still cannot imagine why this is necessary, then here are a few situations in which DNA identification is used:

Genetics of diseases

There are two types of diseases that can be identified at the DNA level: genetic and genetic predisposition. The cause of the first is a violation in the structure of the genome. Such diseases are also called monogenic. One of the best examples is galactosemia. In this disease, enzymes responsible for the conversion of sugar into glucose are extremely poorly functioning. Thanks to modern medicine, the gene responsible for the development of this disease has been identified. Diseases that have a hereditary predisposition depend not only on genetics, but also on lifestyle and the environment. For example, a hereditary tendency to atherosclerosis can be pushed into the background thanks to a healthy lifestyle and nutrition.

Sport

Yes, yes, our athletic abilities are at the DNA level. For example, muscle strength depends both on the type of muscle fibers, and on the oxygen supply of muscle tissue and metabolism in muscle cells – myocytes. Speaking of speed, it is determined by such factors as the metabolism of neurotransmitters and the intensity of redox processes. α-actin-3 (ACTN3) forms fast type II muscle fibers. Also, the rs1815739 polymorphism largely determines the prevailing type of muscle fiber. The PPARG gene encodes a gamma receptor activated by a peroxisome proliferator that participates in cell differentiation and muscle tissue metabolism and determines the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. The rs1801282 polymorphism sets a predisposition for speed-power sports, causing muscles to more efficiently utilize fatty acids and glucose. Also, DNA analysis allows to determine the endurance, metabolism genes, nutritional behavior, psychogenetics and the effectiveness of weight loss with increasing physical activity.

Pharmaceuticals

DNA testing can also reveal susceptibility to certain drugs. For example, you can take Metformin. This is a hypoglycemic drug from the group of biguanides (dimethylbiguanide). It increases blood circulation in the liver and accelerates the process of converting glucose to glycogen. Reduces triglycerides, LDL, VLDL. Metformin improves blood fibrinolytic properties by suppressing a tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibitor. It would seem an excellent tool, but not any organism can work with it. PPARG – a gene that encodes a protein – a receptor activated by peroxisome proliferators, gamma – that regulates the expression of genes involved in the differentiation and metabolism of muscle tissue, mainly the metabolism of fat and carbohydrates. The rs1801282 polymorphism is associated with an increased likelihood of weight loss during treatment with metformin.

Alien child

Sometimes it happens that unexpectedly and unexpectedly from your girlfriend comes the message “I here, in fact, gave birth. from you. send money. Of course, the child is the most desirable gift of fate for many of us. But it is not always pleasant to receive other people’s gifts. Therefore, many questions may appear in your head, for example, “but I’m only on the face, how did it happen?”, So instead of puzzling and raising another’s child from an unholy girl, it’s better to be sure. It’s simple: you take a sample from a child (hair, nail, drool), you go to the laboratory, you hand over and soon everything falls into place. If, nevertheless, this is not your child, then you will have evidence that will help get rid of the burden of responsibility, both moral and legal. Unless, of course, you yourself want it.

How does the DNA analysis

First you need to decide what DNA is. Roughly speaking, this is a double right-handed spiral. Each coil of it consists of 10 pairs of nucleotides, and a person has as many as 3 billion! And for hundreds of years, scientists around the world have been working on its study. Fortunately, they were able to decipher the DNA, and this technology is available to any ordinary person. It all starts with taking a sample, which is called the “control”, because it will be compared with it. The most standard is the buccal smear. You can take the blood, but why cut the skin or pierce with a needle when enough saliva? After sampling, the DNA analysis itself begins. The spiral is divided into parts. Then mark each enzyme with a fluorescent of a different degree of luminescence. Then they are moved apart from each other for convenience. Next, using a powerful microscope, add nitrogen bases, in order to determine the sequence of the location of the structure of DNA. Then add adenine, guanine and cytosine. The procedure is repeated several times until the complete construction of the DNA structure.

Always and at all times the problem of studying the genetics of people was relevant, and it is difficult to argue with that. After all, the development of the organism and its possible diseases are mainly prescribed in the DNA code, and the sooner they can be deciphered, the sooner possible complications can be predicted and prevented. The variety of genetic diseases is as great as terrible. For example, migraine and myopia are also genetically determined diseases. They are not as scary as genetically determined Down syndrome and ystic fibrosis, but still it is a disease that makes the life of a person and his neighbors unbearable to varying degrees. The benefit of science has made great strides forward, and today everyone can, with the help of modern laboratory research, find out the future of their health. Laboratory “DIALAB” studies DNA by any biological samples of any safety.